Table of Content

    20 February 2019, Volume 17 Issue 1
    Special Topic
    Editorial on Special Topic: Quality of Experience for Emerging Video Communications
    Changwen CHEN, Tiesong ZHAO, Zhibo CHEN
    2019, 17(1):  1-2.  doi:10.12142/ZTECOM.201901001
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    Recent Advances and Challenges in Video Quality Assessment
    LI Dingquan, JIANG Tingting, JIANG Ming
    2019, 17(1):  3-11.  doi:10.12142/ZTECOM.201901002
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    Video quality assessment (VQA) plays a vital role in the field of video processing, including areas of video acquisition, video filtering in retrieval, video compression, video restoration, and video enhancement. Since VQA has gained much attention in recent years, this paper gives an up-to-date review of VQA research and highlights current challenges in this filed. The subjective study and common VQA databases are first reviewed. Then, a survey on the objective VQA methods, including full-reference, reduced-reference, and no-reference VQA, is reported. Last but most importantly, the key limitations of current research and several challenges in the field of VQA are discussed, which include the impact of video content, memory effects, computational efficiency, personalized video quality prediction, and quality assessment of newly emerged videos.

    Quality Assessment and Measurement for Internet Video Streaming
    ZHANG Xinggong, XIE Lan, GUO Zongming
    2019, 17(1):  12-17.  doi:10.12142/ZTECOM.201901003
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    Benefiting from the improvements of Internet infrastructure and video coding technology, online video services are becoming a new favorite form of video entertainment. However, most of the existing video quality assessment methods are designed for broadcasting/cable televisions and it is still an open issue how to assess and measure the quality of online video services. In this paper, we survey the state-of-the-art video streaming technologies, and present a framework of quality assessment and measurement for Internet video streaming. This paper introduces several metrics for user’s quality of experience (QoE). These QoE metrics are classified into two categories: objective metrics and subjective metrics. It is different for service participators to measure objective and subjective metrics. The QoE measurement methodologies consist of client-side, server-side, and in-network measurement.

    Automating QoS and QoE Evaluation of HTTP Adaptive Streaming Systems
    Christian Timmerer, Anatoliy Zabrovskiy
    2019, 17(1):  18-24.  doi:10.12142/ZTECOM.201901004
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    Streaming audio and video content currently accounts for the majority of the Internet traffic and is typically deployed over the top of the existing infrastructure. We are facing the challenge of a plethora of media players and adaptation algorithms showing different behavior but lacking a common framework for both objective and subjective evaluation of such systems. This paper aims to close this gap by proposing such a framework, describing its architecture, providing an example evaluation, and discussing open issues.

    Quality of Experience Effects in Video Delivery
    CHEN Jinling, XU Yiwen, LIU Yisang, HUANG Huiwen, ZHUANG Zhongwen
    2019, 17(1):  25-30.  doi:10.12142/ZTECOM.201901005
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    With the popularization of smartphones and high-speed networks, a larger number of users are getting used to watching videos online and have increasing requirements of video quality. Therefore, the video content delivery has become a progressively challenging task, especially for ultra-high-definition (UHD) videos and heterogonous networks. Recently, quality of experience (QoE), which represents the true visual experience of users, has shown its advantages in management of video delivery and thus attracted increasing attention. In a video delivery system, the user QoE can be greatly influenced by numerous effects from video sources to display terminals. In this paper, we first investigate the significant differences between quality of service (QoS) and QoE. In addition, we summarize the end-to-end QoE effects in video delivery and present their classification based on the deployment. We also specifically analyze the impacts of different kinds of factors on QoE in video transmission systems.

    Visual Attention Modeling inCompressed Domain:From Image Saliency Detection toVideo Saliency Detection
    FANG Yuming, ZHANG Xiaoqiang
    2019, 17(1):  31-37.  doi:10.12142/ZTECOM.201901006
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    Saliency detection models, which are used to extract salient regions in visual scenes, are widely used in various multimedia processing applications. It has attracted much attention in the area of computer vision over the past decades. Since most images or videos over the Internet are stored in compressed domains such as images in JPEG format and videos in MPEG2 format, H.264 format, and MPEG4 Visual format, many saliency detection models have been proposed in the compressed domain recently. We provide a review of our works on saliency detection models in the compressed domain in this paper. Besides, we introduce some commonly used fusion strategies to combine spatial saliency map and temporal saliency map to compute the ?nal video saliency map.

    Perceptual Quality Assessment of Omnidirectional Images: Subjective Experiment and Objective Model Evaluation
    DUAN Huiyu, ZHAI Guangtao, MIN Xiongkuo, ZHU Yucheng, FANG Yi, YANG Xiaokang
    2019, 17(1):  38-47.  doi:10.12142/ZTECOM.201901007
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    Virtual reality (VR) environment can provide immersive experience to viewers. Under the VR environment, providing a good quality of experience is extremely important. Therefore, in this paper, we present an image quality assessment (IQA) study on omnidirectional images. We first build an omnidirectional IQA (OIQA) database, including 16 source images with their corresponding 320 distorted images. We add four commonly encountered distortions. These distortions are JPEG compression, JPEG2000 compression, Gaussian blur, and Gaussian noise. Then we conduct a subjective quality evaluation study in the VR environment based on the OIQA database. Considering that visual attention is more important in VR environment, head and eye movement data are also tracked and collected during the quality rating experiments. The 16 raw and their corresponding distorted images, subjective quality assessment scores, and the head-orientation data and eye-gaze data together constitute the OIQA database. Based on the OIQA database, we test some state-of-the-art full-reference IQA (FR-IQA) measures on equirectangular format or cubic format omnidirectional images. The results show that applying FR-IQA metrics on cubic format omnidirectional images could improve their performance. The performance of some FR-IQA metrics combining the saliency weight of three different types are also tested based on our database. Some new phenomena different from traditional IQA are observed.

    Quality-of-Experience in Human-in-the-Loop Haptic Communications
    LIU Qian, ZHAO Tiesong
    2019, 17(1):  48-55.  doi:10.12142/ZTECOM.201901008
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    With the worldwide rapid development of 5G networks, haptic communications, a key use case of the 5G, has attracted increasing attentions nowadays. Its human-in-the-loop nature makes quality of experience (QoE) the leading performance indicator of the system design. A vast number of high quality works were published on user-level, application-level and network-level QoE-oriented designs in haptic communications. In this paper, we present an overview of the recent research activities in this progressive research area. We start from the QoE modeling of human haptic perceptions, followed by the application-level QoE management mechanisms based on these QoE models. High fidelity haptic communications require an orchestra of QoE designs in the application level and the quality of service (QoS) support in the network level. Hence, we also review the state-of-the-art QoS-related QoE management strategies in haptic communications, especially the QoS-related QoE modeling which guides the resource allocation design of the communication network. In addition to a thorough survey of the literature, we also present the open challenges in this research area. We believe that our review and findings in this paper not only provide a timely summary of prevailing research in this area, but also help to inspire new QoE-related research opportunities in haptic communications.

    Comparison Analysis on Feasible Solutions for LTE Based Next-Generation Railway Mobile Communication System
    SUN Bin, DING Jianwen, LIN Siyu, WANG Wei, CHEN Qiang, ZHONG Zhangdui
    2019, 17(1):  56-62.  doi:10.12142/ZTECOM.201901009
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    Wireless communication technologies play an essential role in supporting railway operation and control. The current Global System for Mobile Communications-Railway (GSM-R) system offers a rich set of voice services and data services related with train control, but it has very limited multimedia service bearer capability. With the development of commercial wireless industry, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) mobile broadband technology is becoming the prevalent technology in most of commercial mobile networks. LTE is also a promising technology of future railway mobile communication systems. The 3rd Generation Partner Project (3GPP) and China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) have proposed two feasible LTE based broadband trunking communication solutions: the 3GPP Mission Critical Push to Talk (MCPTT) solution and B-TrunC solution. In this paper, we first introduce the development of railway mobile communications and LTE technology. The user requirements of future railway mobile communication system (FRMCS) are then discussed. We also analyze the suitability of the two LTE-based solutions for LTE based Next-Generation Railway Mobile Communication System (LTE-R) from different aspects.

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