Table of Content

    25 February 2018, Volume 16 Issue 1
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    The whole issue of ZTE Communications February 2018, Vol. 16 No. 1
    2018, 16(1):  0. 
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    Special Topic
    Wireless Data and Energy Integrated Communication Networks
    YANG Kun, HU Jie
    2018, 16(1):  1-1.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5188.2018.01.001
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    Ultra-Low Power High-Efficiency UHF-Band Wireless Energy Harvesting Circuit Design and Experiment
    LI Zhenbing, LI Jian, ZHOU Jie, ZHAO Fading, WEN Guangjun
    2018, 16(1):  2-10.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5188.2018.01.002
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    In this paper, an ultra-low power high-efficiency ultra-high frequency (UHF)-band wireless energy harvesting circuit based on the diode SMS7360 is designed and experimentally demonstrated, being operated in all released Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) bands in China (GSM900 band: 0.87-0.96 GHz and GSM1800 band: 1.71-1.86 GHz). This UHF-band wireless energy harvesting circuit can harvest energy at 0.87-0.96 GHz and 1.71-1.86 GHz bands simultaneously in outdoor or indoor environment. The test results show that a radio-frequency (RF)-to-direct-current (DC) conversion efficiency in the range of 20%-63.2% is obtained for an available input power of -22 dBm to 1 dBm in GSM900 band and that in the range of 13.8%-55.5% is achieved for an available input power of -22 dBm to 3 dBm in GSM1800 band. The harvested RF energy is converted into DC energy and be stored in a 6.8 mF super capacitor through the energy management circuit. This super capacitor’s capacity is more than 20 mJ, which can meet the demand of high-speed broadband wireless communication transceivers. This ultra-low power high-efficiency UHF-band wireless energy harvesting circuit could be used to achieve the low power wireless sensor network node (tag).

    Design of Wireless Energy-Harvested UHF WSN Tag for Cellular IoT
    LI Gang, XU Rui, LI Zhenbing, ZHOU Jie, LI Jian, WEN Guangjun
    2018, 16(1):  11-17.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5188.2018.01.003
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    In this paper, a wireless energy-harvested ultra-high frequency (UHF) wireless sensor network (WSN) tag is designed and implemented for cellular IoT applications. The WSN tag is made up of a wireless energy harvesting circuit, a temperature sensing circuit, and a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The developed WSN tag is compatible with the ISO/IEC18000-6C protocol. The WSN tag can receive the GSM RF energy operating in China GSM900 and GSM1800 bands in the surrounding environment and the solar energy, then converts the RF energy to direct current (DC) by schottky diode-based rectifying circuit, and finally stores the DC energy in a supercapacitor through a DC-DC booster circuit. The DC-DC booster circuit drives the front-end circuit, TI MSP430 microcontroller, temperature sensing circuit, and other active circuits in the tag. The MSP430 works in low-power mode when it is powered up, and it can also reduce power consumption more by reducing main clock (MCLK) frequency according to different forward link rates. The implemented WSN tag demonstrated that the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency is higher than 39% when the receiving 900 MHz RF signal power is from -14 dBm to 0 dBm and could make the tag work normally. The signal receiving sensitivity of the WSN tag is up to -32 dBm at the rate of 40 kbit/s from the Reader to the WSN tag. The WSN tag supports Miller coding and extended Miller coding. This wireless energy harvested UHF WSN tag, compared with conventional UHF passive tags and battery-powered active UHF RFID Tags, has many advantages, such as far communication distance, long service life, and sensing functionality. It will have wide applications in the Internet of Things (IoT).

    Exploiting Correlations of Energy and Information: A New Paradigm of Energy Harvesting Communications
    GONG Jie, ZHOU Sheng
    2018, 16(1):  18-25.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5188.2018.01.004
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    For deployment flexibility and device lifetime prolonging, energy harvesting communications have drawn much attention recently, which however, encounter energy domain randomness in addition to the channel state randomness and traffic load randomness. The three-dimensional randomness makes the resource allocation problem extremely difficult. To resolve this, we exploit the inherent correlations of energy arrival and information. The correlations include self correlations of energy profiles and mutual correlations between energy and information in both time and spatial domains. The correlations are explicitly explained followed by a state-of-art survey. Candidate mechanisms exploiting the correlations for the ease of resource allocation are introduced along with some recent progress. Finally, a case study is presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

    Recent Advances of Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer in Cellular Networks
    LIU Binghong, PENG Mugen, ZHOU Zheng
    2018, 16(1):  26-37.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5188.2018.01.005
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    As a promising solution to alleviating the energy bottleneck in wireless devices with limited battery capacity, simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) techniques have been widely researched in cellular networks. To further improve the spectral and energy efficiency of wireless information and power transfer, the combination of SWIPT and new techniques in cellular networks has drawn much attention recently. In this paper, we comprehensively survey the key techniques for SWIPT, the combination of SWIPT and new techniques in cellular networks, challenges and open issues. The key techniques for SWIPT including traditional power splitting, time switching, etc., and joint receiving and transmitting techniques such as eigenchannels and mixed signals are provided in detail. Furthermore, the applications of SWIPT to recent techniques such as SWIPT-assisted non-orthogonal multiple access, SWIPT-assisted device-to-device communication, and SWIPT-assisted full-duplex communication, are comprehensively summarized in this paper. The potential open issues including the management of dynamic harvested energy, trading between wireless power transfer and traffic offloading, and effects of the mode switching at energy harvesting devices, are outlined as well.

    Secure Beamforming Design for SWIPT in MISO Full-Duplex Systems
    Alexander A. Okandeji, Muhammad R. A. Khandaker, WONG Kai-Kit, ZHANG Yangyang, ZHENG Zhongbin
    2018, 16(1):  38-46.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5188.2018.01.006
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    This paper investigates the problem of bi-directional secure information exchange for a multiple-input single-output (MISO) broadcast channel in presence of potential and external eavesdroppers capable of decoding the confidential messages. Specifically, a multi-antenna base station (BS) simultaneously sends wireless information and power to a set of dual-antenna mobile stations (MSs) using power splitters (PSs) in the downlink and receives information in the uplink in full-duplex (FD) mode. We address the joint design of the receiver PS ratio and the transmit power at the MSs, the artificial noise covariance, and the beamforming matrix at the BS in order to guarantee the individual secrecy rate and energy harvesting constraints at each receiver, and the signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) at the BS and MSs. Using semidefinite relaxation (SDR) technique, we obtain solution to the problem with imperfect channel state information (CSI) of the self-interfering channels. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of our proposed scheme.

    Research Paper
    Phase-Locked Loop Based Cancellation of ECG Power Line Interference
    LI Taihao, ZHOU Jianshe, LIU Shupeng, SHI Jinsheng, REN Fuji
    2018, 16(1):  47-51.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5188.2018.01.008
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    Power line (PL) interference is one significant artifact in electrocardiography (ECG) that needs to be reduced to ensure accurate recording of cardiac signals. Because PL interference is non-stationary and has varying frequency, phase, and amplitude in ECG measurement, adaptive techniques are often necessary to track and cancel the interference. In this paper we present a phase-locked loop (PLL)-based adaptive filter to cancel PL interference. The PLL obtains the reference signal that is fed into the adaptive filter to remove the PL interference at the central frequency of 50 Hz. It is found that the technique can effectively cancel PL interference in real ECG signals and, when compared with some existing techniques such as least mean squares (LMS) adaptive filter, the new technique produces better results in terms of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR).

    Behavior Targeting Based on Hierarchical Taxonomy Aggregation for Heterogeneous Online Shopping Applications
    ZHANG Lifeng, ZHANG Chunhong, HU Zheng, TANG Xiaosheng
    2018, 16(1):  52-60.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5188.2018.01.009
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    Behavior targeting (BT) based on individual web-browsing history has become more valuable in precision marketing for many companies through capturing users ’interest and preference. It is common in practice that the behavior data collected from different online shopping applications are inconsistent since they are labelled by different item taxonomy, where the same behavior could have different representations and therefore analysis confusion arises. To address this issue, we propose a semantic similarity based strategy to transform the heterogeneous behavior extracted from deep packet inspection (DPI) data of a telecommunication operator into a unique standard one. The Word Mover’s Distance algorithm is exploited to evaluate the semantic similarity of the distributed representations of two web-browsing histories. Moreover, the architecture of the behavior targeting platform on Hadoop is implemented, which is capable of processing data with size of PB level every day.

    Overview of Co-Design Approach to RF Filter and Antenna
    ZHANG Wenmei, CHEN Xinwei
    2018, 16(1):  61-66.  doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5188.2018.01.007
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    The filter and antenna are two key components of the radio frequency (RF) front-end. When the antenna is directly connected with the filter, additional mismatch losses will be caused. Therefore, the antenna and filter are integrated into a single device to provide both filtering and radiating functions. In this way, many advantages, like low cost, light weight, small size and lower insertion loss can be obtained. In this paper, the co-design approaches of RF filter-antenna are reviewed. Based on the open literatures, the integrated approaches of filtering antenna can be classified into five main categories:1) Co-design by optimizing the interfacing impedance, 2) co-design according to the synthesis approach of filter, 3) co-design by embedding novel resonators within the feeding structures, 4) co-design by employing auxiliary physical structures, and 5) other methods. The RF filter-antenna system can improve the integration degree of RF front-end, reduce its size and cost, and optimize its performance.